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Endokrinoloji ve Metabolizma Hastalıkları Uzmanı, Endokrinolog, Endokrin, Diyabet, Tiroid Hastalıkları, Obezite, İnsülin Direnci, Polikistik Over Sendromu, Metabolik Bozukluklar, Metabolik Sendrom Osteoporoz Aşırı Tüylenme, Menopoz, Hipertansiyon

The main diseases that Prof. Dr. Ayşe Çarlıoğlu interested in diagnosis and treatment are: Diabetes, Thyroid Diseases, Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Testicular and Ovarian Hormonal Diseases, Menstrual Irregularities, Metabolic Disorders, Metabolic Syndrome, Excess of Underproducttion of Hormones, Vitamin D Deficiency, Osteoporosis, Excessive Hair (Hirsutism-Hair Growth), Menopause, Hypertension, Lipid Disorders, Pituitary Gland Diseases, Adrenal Gland Diseases, Pancreatic Gland Diseases, Neuroendocrine Tumors, Hypoglycemia (Reduced Blood Sugar), Parathyroid Gland Diseases, Endocrinological Genetic Diseases, Fat Metabolism Related Diseases, Infertility (Infertility), Growth Retardation (Short Stature), Tumors of the Glands and Metabolic Diseases.

Last Answered Questions

What is the Endocrine System?


Endocrinology originally means Endo (inner) and crino (secretion). The glands that secrete 'hormones' in the body are called 'endocrine glands'. 'Hormone' is a kind of chemical message that one cell group sends to another group of cells. Through these chemical messages, organs in the body communicate with each other.


Mechanisms related to body metabolism, reproductive functions, growth-development and appetite regulation are controlled by hormones.


Endocrinology Department; usually deals with the following disease groups:

  • Type 1 and type 2 diabetes,

  • Gestational diabetes (gestational diabetes),

  • Metabolic syndrome,

  • Hypertension (especially endocrine hypertension),

  • Obesity (obesity),

  • Goiter and other thyroid gland diseases,

  • Pituitary gland diseases (eg prolactin hormone heights),

  • Cholesterol and triglyceride (blood fat) heights,

  • Osteoporosis (bone resorption) and metabolic bone diseases,

  • Diseases of the adrenal glands (adrenal or adrenal glands)

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome in women, Hirsutism (excess hair growth).


In summary, Endocrine system; It deals with the hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands (adrenal or surrenal glands), ovaries (ovaries) and testicles and the body systems affected by these hormones, and deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases caused by these systems. Diagnosis and treatment of endocrine diseases are mostly based on laboratory tests. Generally, after a preliminary diagnosis is made with biochemical and hormonal laboratory tests, the diagnosis is confirmed by imaging tests. Most endocrine diseases include chronic diseases that require close lifelong follow-up. Examples include diabetes, hypertension, and hypothyroidism.

What is an endocrinologist?

An endocrinologist is a doctor who deals with diseases of the endocrine system. Endocrinologists diagnose diseases that affect the glands. They know how to treat diseases that are often complex and involve many systems in our body. Your primary care doctor will refer you to an endocrinologist when you have a problem with the endocrine system.

What do endocrinologists do?
Endocrinologists are trained to diagnose and treat hormone imbalance and problems. They deal with many different situations: Endocrinologists may also order some tests to evaluate how their glands are working.

What type of medical training do endocrinologists take?
Endocrinologists finish six-year medical school and then complete a four or five-year residency program in internal medicine. They spend another three years learning how to diagnose and treat hormonal diseases. In total, the training of an endocrinologist takes more than 13 years.

What are the most common endocrine diseases and disorders?
Diseases and disorders of the endocrine system can be grouped in various different areas. Some endocrinologists focus on one or more diseases of the endocrine system, such as diabetes, thyroid, reproductive and menstrual disorders. Others work in all areas of endocrinology. The main areas of endocrinology are described below.

Patients with diabetes have too much sugar in their blood. Recent studies have shown that blood sugar control can help prevent serious problems caused by diabetes. These problems are related to the eyes, kidneys and nerves and can lead to blindness, kidney failure, dialysis or gangrene in patients with poor blood glucose control. Endocrinologists treat diabetes with diet and oral medications or insulin. They work with patients to control their blood sugar and monitor them so they can prevent any health problems that may develop.

Patients with thyroid disorders often have problems with their energy levels. In addition, they may have problems with muscle stiffness, sensory disturbances, weight control, and tolerance to heat or cold. Endocrinologists treat patients with excess (hyperthyroidism) or low (hypothyroidism) of thyroid hormone caused by overworking of the thyroid. They help patients maintain hormone balance, either by giving thyroid hormone or by blocking excess hormone. Endocrinologists are also trained to treat thyroid nodules, thyroid cancer, and enlarged thyroid tissue (goiter).

Osteomalacia (rickets in childhood) and osteoporosis in adults that soften bones, parathyroid diseases that disrupt calcium balance and develop osteoporosis are bone diseases that endocrinologists diagnose and treat. Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens the skeleton. Some hormones protect the bone tissue and some hormones have a detrimental effect. When hormone levels are abnormal, bones can lose calcium and become weak. Menopause in women and loss of testicular function and aging in men can put you at risk for bone fractures.

Reproduction / infertility
Approximately one in ten couples in the world cannot have a child. Endocrine research has helped thousands of couples to have children. Endocrinologists diagnose and treat hormone disorders that can cause infertility. They work with patients who need hormone administration. Problems that endocrinologists treat in reproductive endocrinology include menopausal complaints, menstrual irregularities, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premenstural syndrome and impotence (sexual impotence).

Obesity and Overweight
Endocrinologists investigate and treat overweight and obese patients for metabolic and hormonal problems. Obese people have too much body fat. Thyroid, adrenal, ovarian and pituitary disorders can cause obesity. Endocrinologists also evaluate and treat insulin resistance and genetic problems associated with obesity.

Pituitary gland
The pituitary is often referred to as the body's main gland because it controls the other glands. The pituitary produces some important hormones. Excess or scarcity of pituitary hormones can lead to infertility, menstrual disorders, growth disorders (excessive growth or short stature), cortisol imbalances (obesity or weakness), excess prolactin. Endocrinologists control these conditions with medications and direct patients who need surgery.

Children and adults are affected by not having enough growth hormone. Pediatric endocrinologists treat children with endocrine disorders that cause short stature and other growth disorders. Adults with growth hormone deficiency experience emotional stress and weakness. Safe and effective growth hormone therapy is available for these individuals.

Hypertension means high blood pressure and is a risk factor for heart disease. More than 10% of people have high blood pressure due to an excess of aldosterone, a hormone synthesized in the adrenal gland. About half of these cases have tissues that can be removed surgically. Metabolic syndrome or pheochromocytoma, a rare adrenal disorder, can also cause hypertension by causing hormone imbalance. All these conditions can be treated successfully.

Lipid disorders
Patients with lipid disorders have problems maintaining normal body fat (cholesterol) levels. The most common lipid disorders; It is an excess of cholesterol, excess triglycerides, or low protective cholesterol (HDL Cholesterol). High levels of these fats are associated with heart (coronary) disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular diseases (circulation problems in the legs). Endocrinologists are trained to detect hypothyroidism (thyroid hormone deficiency), drug use (such as cortisone), genetic or metabolic conditions that may be associated with lipid disorders. Lipid disorders can be found with conditions such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity that require special management. Special diets, exercise, and medications can be applied to treat hyperlipidemia and other lipid disorders.

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